Medical Schools offer a wide variety of programs for professionals wishing to enter the medical field. Theses programs typically include M.D., Ph.D., and joint M.D.-Ph.D. courses of study, as well as programs for students who want to pursue careers in teaching and research. Each program includes a combination of both classroom and laboratory instruction, which is conducted by the science department and connected hospital laboratories.
Schools offering programs in medicine are divided into departments, such as cell biology; microbiology, genetics, molecular genetics, pharmacology, biological chemistry, pathology, neurobiology, social medicine, health care policy, ambulatory care, and systems biology. They often include a dental department or a close link with an affiliated dental school. Interdisciplinary research crosses many departmental boundaries and is open to students from different sections of the school. There is typically a close relationship between the medical school and the attached university hospital.